Topics: Auction 45A - July 16, 2015 - Willam M. Rosenblum, LLC.

Although there is no standard description, ancient coins are typically classified by geographic origin and culture rather than chronology. This is because the civilizations these coins come from span a range of years and do not have one common end date. For example, ancient Roman coins include those made until the fall of Rome around 476 A.D., while ancient metal money from the Byzantine Empire was issued until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.

Most ancient coins collected today come from Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, and the three distinct Persian Empires. Ancient Greek coins are some of the oldest, dating from 800 B.C. to 100 A.D. Roman coins were minted from 400 B.C. to 476 A.D. and include Roman Republic and Roman Imperial coins, the latter of which changed based on the emperor at the time. The Byzantine Empire spanned from 330 to 1204 A.D. and again from 1261 to 1453 A.D. The broad ancient Persian Empire has the widest range, from approximately 550 B.C. to 651 A.D.

Ancient coins are the most plentiful of all collectable antiquities. Their value is typically determined by historical accuracy and condition rather than how old or rare they are. It is not uncommon to see two similar coins with very different valuations.

Carthage ( / ˈ k ɑːr θ ɪ dʒ / , from Latin : Carthāgō ; Phoenician : 𐤒𐤓𐤕𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕 Qart-ḥadašt "New City") was the centre or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization , on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

The ancient city was destroyed by the Roman Republic in the Third Punic War in 146 BC then re-developed as Roman Carthage , which became the major city of the Roman Empire in the province of Africa. The Roman city was again occupied by the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb , in 698. The site remained uninhabited, the regional power shifting to the Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th century, when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis, incorporated as Carthage municipality in 1919.

The Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج ( Qarṭāj ) is an adoption of French Carthage , replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name. [6]

Sumer ( / ˈ s uː m ər / ) [note 1] was the first urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia , modern-day southern Iraq , during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley. [1] Living along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates , Sumerian farmers were able to grow an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus of which enabled them to settle in one place.

Proto-writing in the prehistory dates back to c. 3000 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC; early cuneiform script writing emerged in 3000 BC. [2]

Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence), an agglutinative language isolate. [3] [4] [5] [6]

Bible commentary on John 2, by Dr. Bob Utley, retired Professor of Bible Interpretation.

2:1 "there was a wedding" Village weddings were major social events. They often involved the entire community and could last several days.

▣ "the mother of Jesus was there" Apparently Mary was helping with the arrangements for the wedding. This can be seen in (1) her ordering the servants (cf. John 2:5) and (2) her concern over the refreshments (cf. John 2:3). These probably were relatives or family friends.

2:3 "They have no wine" It was a mandatory Hebrew custom for the guests to provide the wine. This wine is obviously fermented, as seen in (1) comment of master of ceremonies, John 2:9-10; (2) the Jewish customs in Jesus' day; or (3) the lack of hygienic processes or chemical additives.

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